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CAMERAS

Acho que não há um curso que eu ministre que não aborde o assunto de compra de equipamentos!  Desde as mais simples câmeras até o mais sofisticado flash de estúdio, os problemas são os mesmos no momento da compra:  pouca informação, seja por parte do comprador, seja por parte do vendedor.  O resultado é uma compra que nem sempre satisfaz, seja pelo equipamento ter funções abaixo da expectativa, seja pelo mesmo possuir funções demais!

À partir de hoje, em todas as Segundas, colocarei aqui informações referentes à escolha do equipamento mais conveniente para cada um que deseje se aventurar na fotografia.  Começarei com aspectos da câmera, passando por lentes, flashes, tripés, equipamentos de estúdio e outros acessórios.   Caso o leitor busque informações mais detalhadas, entre em contato direto comigo!

Câmeras

Sempre escuto pessoas falando sobre “câmera semiprofissional” .  A primeira pergunta que me vem à cabeça é: o que seria uma “câmera semiprofissional” ?  Alguém já contratou um advogado “semiprofissional” ?   Algum médico ou dentista utiliza equipamento semiprofissional em seu trabalho?

Na fotografia existem várias categorias de equipamento, alguns voltados para profissionais, outros para amadores,  e assim é com as câmeras.  O que se convencionou  a chamar de “semiprofissional” são as câmeras com o sistema “reflex” , um sistema de espelho e prisma que faz com que, olhando pelo visor traseiro da câmera, vejamos exatamente a mesma imagem que será “enviada” para o sensor da câmera, mostrando ao fotógrafo características como saturação e contraste da forma mais fiel possível.  Outras câmeras, ou possuem um visor direto ou uma imagem vista através de um monitor onde o mesmo altera características da imagem.

Sistema Reflex

Reflexy_11

Visor Direto (Rangefinder)

leica

Estas câmeras  são chamadas hoje de DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) , ou Monorreflex Digital.  Elas se subdividem em três categorias: Entrada, Avançada e Profissional.  Esta divisão visa atender ao mercado onde o consumidor pode escolher a câmera de acôrdo com seu interêsse de se aprofundar em fotografia.  Provavelmente voce está se perguntando como diferenciar cada uma das categorias!  Existem vários diferenciais: construção, performance, funções, automatização, processador, qualidade do sensor e outros detalhes, além do valor, pois há uma diferença proporcionalmente grande entre cada categoria.  Podemos traçar um paralelo e dizer que a diferença seria a mesma que há entre um carro 1.0, outro 2.0 e um Hummer!  Todas as tres categorias, assim como os carros, vão te levar do “Ponto A” para o “Ponto B” , mas o resultado e a execução serão diferentes.

Uma câmera profissional terá um sensor digital maior e mais moderno, gerando um arquivo grande e pesado, além de uma construção mais robusta.  Devido à este sensor maior, a câmera deverá possuir um processador bem veloz.  Uma coisa é fazer 2 fps (frames per second = fotos por segundo) em uma câmera com 12 MP, outra é fazer 8 fps com um sensor de 36 MP,  isso sem contabilizar que uma câmera profissional possui um sensor de última geração que gera menos ruído (noise) , o autofoco é mais rápido e a capacidade de absorver detalhes em áreas críticas (áreas muito claras/muito escuras) maior

Coloco abaixo uma tabela com o ranking de câmeras:

hierarquiacams1Outro ponto importante é o tamanho do sensor.  A chegada da digitalização à fotografia alegrou bastante os fabricantes de câmera.  Até então, quando se investia na compra de uma câmera, era para durar bastante!  À partir da digitalização a troca de câmeras passou à ser constante.  No mundo profissional, câmeras com mais de dois anos já começam à ficar obsoletas.  No meio amador poderíamos dizer que a duração média de uma câmera gira em torno de quatro/cinco anos.  No início, as opções de câmeras digitais se restringiam à câmeras profissionais de alta performance ou câmeras automáticas, pequenas e sem controles eficientes.  Para popularizar e vender mais, a solução foi reduzir o tamanho do sensor.  Ele passou de 36 mm x 24 mm para 24 mm x 16 mm.  Como conseqüência, as imagens tem menor resolução e não necessitam de um processador digital ultra-rápido, elementos que reduzem o custo.  Em compensação, a qualidade cai, assim como a velocidade na execução da foto.  Como a área do sensor é menor, as lentes também são reduzidas e abrangem um campo menor, o que gera problemas quando voce utiliza uma lente construída para um sensor pequeno em uma câmera com um sensor grande.  O oposto, uma lente construída para um sensor grande, não apresenta problemas em uma câmera com o sensor pequeno.  As denominações destes sensores são DX (24 mm x 16 mm) e FX (36 mm x 24 mm) .

Tamanho do sensor em relação à imagem gerada por cada lente:

dx-vs-fx-chart-crop-2

O enquadramento também é alterado!

sample-photo-with-fx-dx-overlay3

Pelo tamanho do espelho já é possível notar a diferença de tamanho entre os sensores:

maxresdefault

 

 

A imagem de cima mostra um sensor FX com uma lente DX.  A imagem de baixo mostra o mesmo sensor com a lente correta.

dxfx

Para aqueles que compram câmeras usadas existe sempre a preocupação de saber quantas imagens já foram clicadas.  Para descobrir isso, peça ao vendedor que te envie uma imagem recente da câmera.  Abra esta imagem no Photoshop, vá até a barra superior e siga a “trilha” : File -> File Info -> Advanced -> Schema -> aux: ImageNumber:  .  Ali voce encontrará o numero de clicks da câmera, independente do número sequencial do arquivo.

Semana que vem escreverei sobre lentes!

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